By Matthew J. Goff
The knowledge culture of historical Israel, represented within the Hebrew Bible by way of Proverbs, task, and Ecclesiastes and within the Apocrypha via Ben Sira and the knowledge of Solomon, can be well-attested within the texts from Qumran. 4QInstruction (1Q26, 4Q415 418, 4Q423), the biggest knowledge textual content of the lifeless Sea Scrolls, is taken into account a sapiential textual content basically due to its specific and insistent pedagogical nature. To make this important knowledge textual content extra broadly to be had, this quantity deals a serious variation, translation, and observation at the major fragments of 4QInstruction. It examines specific texts of 4QInstruction in addition to broader concerns, together with its date, style, major issues, and position in moment Temple Judaism. eventually, for you to contextualize this pivotal paintings, 4QInstruction s courting to the sapiential and apocalyptic traditions can also be explored.
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Additional resources for 4QInstruction
4Q418 9 8], 14), “meditate” ( ;הגה4Q418 43 4 [cf. 4Q417 1 i 6]), “grasp” ( ;לקח4Q418 77 4) the mystery that is to be. 4Q415 6 4 urges him to “test ( )בחןthese things” with the mystery that is to be. 56. Mysteries are also revealed to one’s “ear” in 1QH 9:23 (cf. 6:13; 22:26; 25:12). 57. Goff 2003a, 163–86. 58. , 1QS 4:18; 1QH 12:28; 17:23; 19:19; 1QpHab 7:4–5; 4Q300 1a ii–b 2. For a good recent survey of the relevant material, consult Thomas 2009, 136–86. 16 4QINSTRUCTION The “mystery” of the mystery that is to be conveys that the knowledge in question originates from heaven.
The reference to being a wife “fore[ver]” suggests that the female, addressed in the second person, is to uphold the ideal that a woman should remain with her husband for her entire life (cf. l. 8). 26. The practice is allowed in biblical law (Deut 21:15) and was probably acceptable in Palestine during the time of the composition. See also CD 4:20–21; 11QT 57:15–19. See Satlow 2001, 189–92. 27. 6 l. 23). Ben Sira provides some support for the view that איבcould similarly refer to divorce. ” This verse is not extant in Hebrew.
The overriding concern is not simply that the bond of marriage be respected by the man and the woman, but also that dominion over the female be smoothly transferred from her father to her husband. This topic is explicit in 4Q416 2 iv (ll. 3–7). This is also the case in 4Q415 9 (ll. 7–8). This column also underscores the importance of childbirth, understanding the body of the woman as owned by the husband. It is his womb that conceives (4Q415 9 2; cf. 4Q415 2 i + 1 ii 5–7). 4Q416 2 iv 4, reworking Gen 2:24, claims that the wife is “one flesh” with the male addressee.
4QInstruction by Matthew J. Goff