By Samuel Elmo Martin
Have you puzzled a couple of jap sentence your textbook fails to provide an explanation for? Do you're feeling uncertain in regards to the use of «wa,» «ga,» and «mo?» Or what the foundations and meanings of phrases of their literary kinds are? if this is the case, you will discover your solutions in A Reference Grammar of eastern, the main entire and trustworthy reference resource on hand. With an in depth 105-page index, the reader will speedy locate reasons for debris similar to wa, ga, mo, ni, and de tricky nouns reminiscent of mono, koto, tokoro, wake, hazu, and tame sentence extensions comparable to ne, yo, sa, yara, and nari verb tenses, literary varieties, adverse varieties - in brief, every thing involved in the japanese language. For the intense pupil, this e-book is necessary for clearing up the ambiguities of difficult eastern sentences.
«A really huge paintings. the most effective reference grammars ever written approximately any language.» - magazine of Asian Studies
«A wealth of knowledge has been packed among the covers.» - Monumenta Nipponica
«By some distance the main finished reference grammar of jap within the English language (and might be in any language).» - magazine of Linguistics
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Extra resources for A Reference Grammar of Japanese
1 a. pseudo-reciprocal use of dative of confrontation ' [coming in contact] with' (N ni/to + au 'meets', wa kareru 'parts', n iru 'resembles', kuraberu 'compares', ... 6. 1 b. objective stimulus; reason, cause (cf. de 6, kara 5) bi nboo n i kurusfmu 'suffers from poverty' (cf. binboo de kurusfmu 'is d istressed at one's poverty') , byooki ni nayamu 'agon i zes over being i l l ' (cf. byooki de nayamu 'is afflicted with an i l lness') , kodomo ni odoroku 'is surprised at the chi ld ' (cf. kodomo de odoroku 'is surprised by the chi ld ') , kodomo ni ga kkari suru 'is disappoi nted in the chi ld ', te-busoku ni komaru 'is embarrassed by a shortage of per sonne l ', (ame de) miti ni mayou 'is confused about the road (owi ng to the ra in) ', kosame ni nureru 'gets ( pleasantly) wet in the shower' (cf.
2, § 9. 1 . 1 3, cf. § 1 7. 1 ) : iwai (o-iwai) n i 'as a celebration, in order to celebrate'; V-i ni i ku 'goes to V', VN [si ] ni i ku 'goes to V N ' ( § 9. 1 . 1 ) . Does taberu no n i y o i ' i s good for eati ng' belong here? 2. E 9. -see § 9. 1 . 1 . E 1 0. manner '-ly, -wise': see § 9. 1 . (3) . ( E ) 1 1 . 8 on conjoini ng. Cf. Sore ni 'And (then/a lso) '. 1 2. 8 (daroo ni) ; § 1 7. 7 ( l iterary tentative + ni with several meanings) ; § 9. 1 . l a ( V 1 -i n i V 1 -ru) ; ... ( E ) 1 3.
1 4) optionally replacing the usual markers of the allative ( 'to') and perhaps the ab· lative ( 'from ') u nder the FACI L I TATI V E conversions ( § 9. 8) . 8) . 2. "ind irect subject" of a VE R B : ( 1 6) the possessor o r quasi-possessor (= n h . 3. "genitives" of various kinds-through el l ipsis ( § 3. 2 - 3) : ( 1 7) genitive. 4. "d irect surface-subject" of an ADJE CT I V E or ADJECT I VAL NOUN (or PR ECOPU LAR NOUN ) : ( 1 8) attributee of a n attribute. ( 1 9) cathectic object of an adjective of emotion ; cf (9) above.
A Reference Grammar of Japanese by Samuel Elmo Martin