# New PDF release: Acid-base Equilibria and Calculations (1996)(en)(48s)

By Lower S.K.

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**Additional info for Acid-base Equilibria and Calculations (1996)(en)(48s)**

**Example text**

The equivalence of these two concentrations corresponds to the point labeled 1 in Fig. 001 M solution of acetic acid in pure water. 001 molar solution of sodium acetate in pure water. This, you will recall, corresponds to the composition of a solution of acetic acid that has been titrated to its equivalence point with sodium hydroxide. 7 0 [FmÐ] Ð log concentration 2 This diagram is just the superposition of the separate diagrams for the ammonia and formic acid systems. In a solution of ammonium formate, stoichiometry requires that [NH3] [NH4+] [HFm] 4 6 [FmÐ] − [NH3 ] + [NH+ 4 ] = [HCOOH] + [HCOO ] [NH3] 8 [HFm] This condition corresponds to the point indicated on the graph.

13. 3 [HPO42Ð] 5 [H3PO4] Ð2 [H+] Ð3 [OHÐ] 3 log concentration 2 Ð4 4 [PO43Ð] 1 Ð5 [HPO42Ð] Ð6 [H2PO4Ð] Ð7 Ð8 Ð9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 pH Figure 13: Log-C diagram for the phosphate system which gives [H3 PO4 ] = [HPO2− 4 ] after smaller terms are eliminated (2). Na3 PO4 is treated straightforwardly and corresponds to point 5. The case of Na2 HPO4 is not quite so simple, however; the proton-balance expression 3− − 2[H3 PO4 ] + [H3 O+ ] + [H2 PO− 4 ] = [PO4 ] + [OH ] cannot be so greatly simplified because the two terms on the right will be comparable.

The “total dissolved carbon” CT is given by the mass balance 2− CT = [H2 CO3 ] + [HCO− 3 ] + [CO3 ] (62) The distribution of these species as a function of pH can best be seen in the log C-pH diagram of Fig. 15. This diagram is constructed for a solution in which CT = 10−5 M . Chem1 General Chemistry Reference Text 43 Acid-base equilibria and calculations • Distribution of carbonate species in aqueous solutions 0 a Closed system, constant CT = 10Ð3 mol/L Ð1 [OHÐ] log concentration Ð2 -3 [CO32Ð] [HCO3Ð] [CO2] Ð4 Ð5 [H+] Ð6 Ð7 Ð8 Ð9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 pH Figure 15: log C-pH diagram for a 10−5 M carbonate solution at 25 ◦ C.

### Acid-base Equilibria and Calculations (1996)(en)(48s) by Lower S.K.

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