By Miles McPhee
At a time while the polar areas are present process speedy and exceptional switch, figuring out exchanges of momentum, warmth and salt on the ice-ocean interface is necessary for realistically predicting the long run nation of sea ice. by means of providing a size platform principally unaffected via floor waves, drifting sea ice presents a special laboratory for learning facets of geophysical boundary layer flows which are super tricky to degree in different places. This ebook attracts on either wide observations and theoretical ideas to advance a concise description of the impression of pressure, rotation, and buoyancy at the turbulence scales that regulate exchanges among the ambience and underlying ocean whilst sea ice is current. a number of fascinating and specified observational facts units are used to demonstrate assorted elements of ice-ocean interplay starting from the impression of salt on melting within the Greenland Sea marginal ice region, to how nonlinearities within the equation of country for seawater impact blending within the Weddell Sea.
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Additional info for Air-Ice-Ocean Interaction: Turbulent Ocean Boundary Layer Exchange Processes
Averaged over the 1 h, the covariances suggest a downward heat ﬂux of about 70 W m−2 (roughly 15% the incoming shortwave radiation at the upper ice surface), and salinity ﬂux comparable to that expected midway in the well mixed layer if the freezing rate was about 5 cm per day (McPhee and Stanton 1996). 925UT, 1992 60 Fig. 3 One hour of turbulence data near midday at the edge of a freezing lead in April, 1992. 8 m, approximately halfway through the well mixed layer. b Deviatory temperature. c. Deviatory salinity as measured with a microstructure conductivity sensor.
1 shows the TIC conﬁguration used during LeadEX and SHEBA. The exposed-electrode microstructure conductivity (µ C) instrument is subject to sometimes severe calibration drift and conductivity spikes, but when used in combination with the nearby standard SBE 4, has provided credible direct estimates of salinity ﬂux ( w S ) and allowed us to calculate the total turbulent buoyancy ﬂux from covariance measurements during LeadEX (McPhee 1994; McPhee and Stanton 1996). Mechanical current meters are subject to several limitations, including biological fouling (occasionally a severe problem when ptinafora [jellyﬁsh] are present during a short summer period).
0 (potential density—1,000). Dashed lines are an idealized twolayer system based on the measurements 32 2 Basic Physical Concepts Fig. 11 Temperature/salinity diagrams with isopycnal contours for density calculated at a surface pressure and b at pressure corresponding to the mixed layer depth. T/S characteristics of the idealized two-layer system from Figs. 10 are indicated by symbols (circle for upper, square for lower). See text for further details (see also colorplate on p. 204) Measured T, S, and σ0 proﬁles can be reasonably well represented in the upper 200 m of the water column by a two-layer system with an upper layer thickness of about 93 m.
Air-Ice-Ocean Interaction: Turbulent Ocean Boundary Layer Exchange Processes by Miles McPhee