By National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Ocean Studies Board, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems, Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Technology Assessment Committee
Expanding renewable power improvement, either in the usa and in another country, has rekindled curiosity within the capability for marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) assets to give a contribution to electrical energy iteration. those assets derive from ocean tides, waves, and currents; temperature gradients within the ocean; and free-flowing rivers and streams. One degree of the curiosity within the attainable use of those assets for electrical energy new release is the expanding variety of allows which were filed with the Federal strength Regulatory fee (FERC). As of December 2012, FERC had issued four licenses and eighty four initial allows, up from almost 0 a decade in the past. although, every one of these allows are for advancements alongside the Mississippi River, and the particular gain learned from all MHK assets is intensely small. the 1st U.S. advertisement gridconnected undertaking, a tidal venture in Maine with a means of under 1 megawatt (MW), is at the moment offering a fragment of that energy to the grid and is because of be absolutely put in in 2013.
As a part of its overview of MHK assets, DOE requested the nationwide examine Council (NRC) to supply specific reviews. In reaction, the NRC shaped the Committee on Marine Hydrokinetic power expertise review. As directed in its assertion of activity (SOT), the committee first built an meantime document, published in June 2011, which all for the wave and tidal source checks (Appendix B). the present document comprises the committee's overview of all 5 of the DOE source different types in addition to the committee's reviews at the total MHK source evaluation approach. This precis makes a speciality of the committee's overarching findings and conclusions concerning a conceptual framework for constructing the source checks, the aggregation of effects right into a unmarried quantity, and the consistency throughout and coordination among the person source tests. opinions of the person source evaluation, extra dialogue of the sensible MHK source base, and overarching conclusions and suggestions are defined in An overview of the U.S. division of Energy's Marine and Hydrokinetic source Assessment.
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Additional resources for An Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Marine and Hydrokinetic Resource Assessments
Model output was used (1) to provide an upper bound, Pmax , of the power available from tidal in-stream turbines for each bay and (2) to create a Web-based geographic information system (GIS) interface of quantities such as the local average power density (W/m2) in a vertical plane perpendicular to the average current at each model grid cell. Visualizations of average power density could, in principle, be used to estimate the power available from a single turbine or a few turbines (an array small enough not to have a significant back effect on the currents).
The tidal resource assessment group calibrated the tidal models by adjusting the single friction coefficient to improve the comparison among model results, NOAA predictions of tidal elevation and currents, and limited observations of depth-averaged tidal currents. Model calibration parameters include harmonic constituents for tidal currents and water levels, maximum/minimum tidal currents, and high/low tides. An independent model validation performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which compared model predictions with observed tidal elevations and currents at selected stations that were not included in the calibration exercises7 (ORNL, 2011).
Coastline and estimated the technical wave resource using the TOC and MOC values specific to three devices (Archimedes Wave Swing, Pelamis, and Wave Dragon) for various ROC values. Compared to the more rigorous approach taken to compute the theoretical resource, the technical resource estimate relies on considerably looser assumptions. In the report, many of the factors are bundled into a single “packing density” of power per kilometer of installed system and some simple assumptions about the range of conditions in which the installed system can operate.
An Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Marine and Hydrokinetic Resource Assessments by National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Ocean Studies Board, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems, Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Technology Assessment Committee