By Loren T. Stuckenbruck
The general public worship of the risen Christ as depicted in John's Apocalypse without delay contradicts the guiding angel's emphasis that basically God will be worshiped (Revelation 19:10; 22:8-9). In Angel Veneration and Christology, Loren Stuckenbruck explores this contradiction in mild of angel veneration in Early Judaism.
Stuckenbruck surveys a wide selection of Jewish traditions regarding angelic worship and discovers proscriptions opposed to sacrificing to angels; prohibitions opposed to making photos of angels; rejections of the "two powers"; second-century Christian apologetic accusations particularly directed opposed to Jews; and, most significantly, the refusal culture, common in Jewish and Jewish-Christian writings, in which angelic messengers refuse the veneration of the seer and exhort the worship of God alone.
While facts for the perform of angel veneration among Jews of antiquity (Qumran, pseudepigraphal literature, and inscriptions from Asia Minor) doesn't provide the speedy history for the worship of Christ, Stuckenbruck demonstrates that the actual fact that safeguards to a monotheistic framework have been issued in any respect throws mild at the Christian perform of worshiping Jesus. the best way the Apocalypse adapts the refusal culture illuminates Revelation's declarations approximately and depictions of Jesus. notwithstanding the refusal culture itself merely safeguards the worship of God, Stuckenbruck lines how the culture has been break up in order that the angelophanic parts have been absorbed into the christophany. As Stuckenbruck exhibits, an angelomorphic Christology, shared by way of the writer of Revelation and its readers, capabilities to maintain the author's monotheistic emphasis in addition to to stress Christ's superiority over the angels―setting the level for the worship of the Lamb in a monotheistic framework that doesn't contradict the angelic directive to worship God on my own.
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Extra info for Angel Veneration and Christology. A Study in Early Judaism and in the Christology of the Apocalypse of John
The Apocalypse: Jewish or Christian? " 60 criterion for making i t , However one evaluates BULTMANN's judgment and his 6 1 his caricature arises from a question that contin ues to be vigorously debated, with implications for the Christology of the Apocalypse. This problem has been addressed on several (1) literary/source criticism, (2) redaction criticism, levels of analysis: and (3) the document in its present form. At the turn of the century, the interpretation of pseudepigraphal and New Testament writings often turned on the assumption that Jewish and Chris tian concepts could be clearly distinguished.
7 7 See esp. Z. SMITH, "Wisdom and Apocalyptic," in ed. D. HANSON, Visionaries and Their Apocalypses (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1983, repr. from 1975) 101-120 (both are scribal phenomena); Michael E. STONE, "Lists of Re vealed Things in the Apocalyptic Literature," in eds. M. E. D. MILLER, Magnalia Dei. The Mighty Acts of Cod. Essays in the Bible and Archaeology in Memory of G. Ernest Wright (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1976) 414-52, esp. pp. 439-43; Michael A. KNIBB, "Prophecy and the Emergence of the Jewish Apocalypses," in eds.
HAYES and Frederick PRUSSNER, Old Testament Theology. C. L. DE WETTE); William F. ALBRIGHT, From Stone Age to Christianity (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1957); and KAUFMANN, esp. History of the Religion of Israel. 4 3 See HAYES and PRUSSNER, Old Testament Theology, pp. L. W. VATKE), 131 (J. WELLHAUSEN, R. E. H. ROBINSON). 4 5 See PETERSEN'S brief discussion of monotheism in Old Testament the ology in "Israel and Monotheism," especially 92, 104 n. C. P. LEMCHE in "Monotheism - A Misused Word" 1-2.
Angel Veneration and Christology. A Study in Early Judaism and in the Christology of the Apocalypse of John by Loren T. Stuckenbruck