# New PDF release: Applications of Classical Physics (web draft april 2013)

By Roger Blanford, Kip Thorne

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**Extra info for Applications of Classical Physics (web draft april 2013)**

**Sample text**

The resulting torque about the z direction will set the cube into rotation with an arbitrarily large angular acceleration unless the stress tensor is symmetric. It is not obvious from its definition, but the stress tensor T is always symmetric in its two slots. To see this, consider a small cube with side L in any medium (or field) (Fig. 6). The medium outside the cube exerts forces, and thence also torques, on the cube’s faces. The z-component of the torque is produced by the shear forces on the front and back faces and on the left and right.

We shall illustrate this concept first by a simple example, then give the general definition. e. e. a rank-0 tensor ). The process of contraction is the construction of A · B from A ⊗ B contraction(A ⊗ B) ≡ A · B . 6a) One can show fairly easily using component techniques (Sec. 5 below) that any second-rank tensor T can be expressed as a sum of tensor products of vectors, T = A ⊗ B + C ⊗ D + . ; and correspondingly, it is natural to define the contraction of T to be contraction(T) = A · B + C · D + .

To see this, consider a small cube with side L in any medium (or field) (Fig. 6). The medium outside the cube exerts forces, and thence also torques, on the cube’s faces. The z-component of the torque is produced by the shear forces on the front and back faces and on the left and right. As shown in the figure, the shear forces on the front and back faces have magnitudes Txy L2 and point in opposite directions, so they exert identical torques on the cube, Nz = Txy L2 (L/2) (where L/2 is the distance of each face from the cube’s center).

### Applications of Classical Physics (web draft april 2013) by Roger Blanford, Kip Thorne

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